Patients with anal cancer often delay seeking medical care. In addition, anal cancer is often misdiagnosed, or the diagnosis is significantly delayed, during which time the patient receives treatment for other benign anorectal disease eg, hemorrhoids. Some authors suggest that endoanal ultrasound can accurately determine the depth of penetration of the carcinoma into the sphincter complex and can be used to accurately gauge the response of these tumours to chemoradiation therapy 8. A combined modality of treatment for patients with anal cancer can cause morbidity due to its potential for treatment interruptions owing to gastrointestinal and dermatologic toxicities. Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The median dose in our analysis was 50 Gy.
Endoanal ultrasound can sometimes be used in locoregional staging 6. Further studies are, therefore, warranted to evaluate the role of molecular and biologic prognostic factors in anal cancer. The overall median tumor dose was 50 Gy. Patients with stage II disease had a median PFS period of 10 years, with no relapses until their last follow-up. The anus is the part where the anal canal opens to the outside. Carcinoma of the anal canal.
Prognostic Factors for Squamous Cell Cancer of the Anal Canal
Variability in methodology and small patient numbers may explain the discordance results [ 49 , 50 ]. These data are limited by relatively small numbers and lack of prospective validation. Treatment Complications Chemoradiation therapy for anal carcinoma can have both acute and chronic effects. In a study from France in patients treated mostly with radiotherapy alone, response to radiotherapy was significantly associated with disease-free survival, both on univariate and multivariate analysis. Eleven patients received 5-FU plus cisplatin, one received 5-FU plus mitomycin, one patient was offered wide local excision, and one declined therapy.
Evaluation of planned treatment breaks during radiation therapy for anal cancer: This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal: These flat cells look like fish scales under the microscope. The grading system takes into account histological attributes that include the following [ 6 ]:. They recommend radiation alone or local excision for T1 lesions, radiation and elective nodal irradiation for T2 lesions, and chemoradiation, including irradiation of the primary tumor and inguinal and pelvic nodes, for T3 and T4 lesions.